When you swallow a painkiller to ease your toothache, you are dealing with the problem on a surface level.

You are treating the symptom, not the cause.

If you, on the other hand, decide to go to the dentist, and you need to undergo surgery to treat an exposed root that created the pain, you are dealing with the root cause of the problem.

Here is how to get to the core reasons behind a problem, not just its surface symptoms. 

Root cause problem solving involves steps like defining the issue, gathering data, identifying potential causes, digging deep to find the root causes, developing solutions, implementing them, and continuously monitoring to prevent their recurrence. 

Various tools and methods aid in this process, ensuring you resolve problems for your clients effectively and not just temporarily patch them with a bandaid.

Doing the difficult, dirty work is not always easy, but if you strategize your business to dig deep and solve root-cause problems for your clients, you will amass indestructible skills to thrive and grow in any circumstances.

In this article, we delve into some essential root cause problem solving tools you can use to perform the abhorred but oh-so-necessary dentist role for your clients.

But first, let’s understand what hides behind systematic root cause problem solving.

What Is Root Cause Problem Solving?

Root cause problem solving is a systematic approach used to identify and address the underlying causes of a problem.

Just as in the example with the toothache, rather than just treating its symptoms, you address the problem at its root. 

The goal of root cause problem-solving is to find the one fundamental reason or multiple reasons why a problem occurred in the first place.

Eventually, implementing effective solutions to prevent its recurrence will not solve only that one instance of an unpleasant event but all others in the future. 

Watch the video to learn more about the “5 Whys Technique” for root cause problem solving:

Here are the key steps involved in root cause problem solving:

  • Clearly articulate the problem you are facing. Gather information, data, and feedback to understand the issue’s scope and impact. This can include process data, customer feedback, employee input, and any other sources of information that can help in the analysis.
  • Brainstorm and list all potential factors or reasons that could contribute to the problem. This step often involves the use of tools like a fishbone diagram (Ishikawa diagram) to categorize potential causes into broader categories like people, processes, equipment, materials, and the environment.
  • Analyze the list of potential causes to identify the most likely contributors. This may involve using data analysis techniques, such as statistical analysis or advanced AI data analysis, to prioritize causes based on their significance.
  • Once the most likely causes have been identified, delve deeper to uncover the root causes. Root causes may involve looking beyond the immediate, apparent causes. Techniques like the “5 Whys” or fault tree analysis can help in this phase. 
  • Work on developing effective solutions to address the root causes once you have identified them. Remember that value-loaded solutions that make you irreplaceable in the eyes of your clients should aim to eliminate or mitigate the root causes, not just alleviate the symptoms.
  • Put the chosen solutions into action. This may involve making changes to processes, workflows, communication and collaboration systems, retraining employees, modifying tools (for example, replacing your team software subscription with a new one with added features), or other appropriate actions.
  • Stay present in the process to ensure that the problem has been resolved and that the solutions are effective. Monitoring prevents the problem from recurring.
  • Document the entire problem-solving process, including the identified root causes and the implemented solutions. Sharing this information with your team and clients can help prevent similar issues in the future.

To sum it up, root cause problem solving is an iterative approach that focuses on getting to the heart of an issue, rather than simply addressing its surface symptoms.

Must-Have Tools for Effective Root Cause Problem Solving

Root cause problem solving involves various tools and methodologies to systematically identify and address the underlying causes of a problem. Here are some commonly used tools and methodologies:

1. The 5 Whys 

This is a simple but effective technique that involves asking “why” repeatedly (usually five times) to drill down to the root cause of a problem. It helps in uncovering deeper and often overlooked causes.

2. Pareto Analysis 

The Pareto principle states that roughly 80% of effects come from 20% of causes. Pareto analysis helps in prioritizing which factors or causes to address first based on their impact:


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3. Ishikawa Diagram (Fishbone Diagram) 

This tool is used to visualize potential causes of a problem by categorizing them into branches on a diagram resembling a fishbone. Categories typically include people, processes, equipment, materials, and environment.

4. Fault Tree Analysis 

This is a systematic approach used in engineering and safety management to identify the root causes of complex events or failures. It involves constructing a tree-like diagram to represent the logical relationships between causes and their effects.

5. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) 

RCA is a comprehensive method that involves investigating the problem’s history, collecting data, and using various techniques like fault tree analysis, failure mode, and effects analysis (FMEA), and statistical analysis to identify root causes.

6. PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) Cycle 

This iterative problem-solving method involves planning a change (Plan), implementing it (Do), checking its effects (Check), and acting to standardize or refine the solution (Act). It’s often used for continuous improvement.

7. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) 

This is a structured problem-solving approach within the Six Sigma methodology. It involves defining the problem, measuring process performance, analyzing data to identify root causes, improving the process, and implementing controls to sustain improvements.

8. A3 Problem-Solving 

A3 is a one-page document that outlines the problem, analyzes root causes, proposes countermeasures, and presents a plan for implementation. It’s commonly used in Lean and Toyota Production System (TPS) environments.

9. Scatter Diagrams 

These are used to visualize the relationship between two variables and help identify potential correlations or patterns that might lead to root causes.

10. Histograms and Pareto Charts 

These graphical tools help in visualizing data distributions and identifying which factors or causes contribute most significantly to a problem.

11. Brainstorming 

This is a group technique used to generate a wide range of ideas and potential causes for a problem. It’s often the first step in problem-solving processes.

12. Cause-and-Effect Matrix 

This tool helps in prioritizing and analyzing potential causes by creating a matrix that maps the relationship between causes and effects, allowing you to focus on high-impact factors.

13. Control Charts 

These are used to monitor process stability and detect any deviations from the norm, helping to identify potential root causes of variation.

14. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) 

Primarily used in product and process design, FMEA systematically evaluates potential failure modes, their causes, and their effects to prioritize improvement efforts.


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15. Tree Diagrams 

Similar to fault tree analysis, tree diagrams help break down complex problems into smaller, manageable components and visualize their relationships.

Choosing the right tool or methodology depends on the nature of the problem and the specific context in which it occurs.

Often, a combination of these tools and methodologies may be used in a comprehensive root cause problem solving effort.

If you want to find and reduce root cause problems in any project, we have an AI-based product concept generator that can help you generate high-level project requirements. Click below for free access:

AI Concept Generator


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